Violent revolutions interventions & terrorism often declare a greater good, with fallout as humanitarian and infrastructural catastrophe — hopefully temporary. Experience of these conditions will certainly spread globally as conflicts shrink and urbanise. Mass rapid repair is needed for stabilisation. In March, the 2nd Libyan civil war (s. 2014] reached a major milestone by confirming an interim government. Amidst a flurry of meetings, embassies are reopening to facilitate business.
Risks include remaining mercenaries, militias, and damage to housing stock, The effect of unresolved politics on recovery and security of civilians is apparent also in Eastern Ukraine, Lebanon, Iraq, and Syria, Iraq & Libya have massive natural resource wealth to fund reconstruction, but continued insecurity bleeds budgets dry, limiting asset investment & safety too. Refugees & IDPs [Internally Displaced) can remain socio-economically immobilised dependents, while militias & banditry reign beyond built-up cores. Protracted conflict zones require not just rapid, affordable construction (e.g. prefab), but urban design techniques & materials to mitigate ongoing combat vulnerability & impact.
‘Homelessness’ imperils nation-building. Knowing this, Saudi Arabia instituted Bedouin resettlement programmes [-1913), achieving unity, stability, and transfer of authority & national feeling to Riyadh (Facey, 1992: 193), As roaming warriors felt the benefit cf institutions the construction of military towers dropped (Harithi, 2007). Turkey is spreading institutional influence to Libya & N. Syria, just as Hezbollah built political legitimacy through housing after Lebanon’s 2006 war. This smooths the social infrastructure for future political operations, vs. damage to property & livelihoods, which erodes diplomatic & soft power (Helford, 2021)